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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. An Author Correction to this article was published on 22 March The Turin Shroud is traditionally considered to be the burial cloth in which the body of Jesus Christ Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki wrapped after his death approximately years ago.
Here, we report the main findings from the analysis of genomic DNA extracted from dust particles vacuumed from parts of the body image and the lateral edge used for radiocarbon dating. Several plant taxa native to the Mediterranean area were identified as well as species with a primary center of origin in Asia, the Middle East or the Americas but introduced in a historical interval later than the Medieval period.
Regarding human mitogenome lineages, our analyses detected sequences Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki multiple subjects of different ethnic origins, which clustered into a of Western Eurasian haplogroups, including some known to be typical of Western Europe, the Near East, the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian sub-continent.
Such diversity does not exclude a Medieval origin in Europe but it would be also compatible with the historic path followed by the Turin Shroud during its pd journey from the Near East. Furthermore, the raise the possibility of an Indian manufacture of the linen cloth. The Turin Shroud TS is a linen cloth, 4. TS is the most important relic of Christianity because the Catholic tradition identifies this burial cloth as that in which the body of Jesus Christ was wrapped before being placed in a Palestine tomb approximately years ago.
Such a scenario is supported by numerous scholars who believe that the journey of TS began in Jerusalem in the year 30 or 33 AD 3. A burial cloth, which some historians consider the Shroud, was owned by the Byzantine emperors but disappeared during the Sack of Constantinople in 4. After this event, TS would have been taken by the crusaders and transferred to Athens Greecewhere it remained until Fromapart from some brief displacements in an effort to hide it during war periods, TS was kept in Turin Italy and later placed in the royal chapel of the city Cathedral inside a specially deed shrine where it has been permanently conserved from to the present.
The TS shows many marks caused by human blood, fire, water and folding of the cloth that partially obscure the double, front and back, body image that is not yet reproducible 1267. Inthe age of the TS linen cloth was assessed by accelerator mass spectrometry. However, two papers have highlighted some concerns about this determination 910 and a Medieval age does not appear to be compatible with the production technology of the linen nor with the chemistry of fibers obtained directly from the main part of the cloth in 1 In anddust particles were vacuumed from the interspace between the Shroud and the Holland Cloth sewn to it as reinforcement The composition of the particles was later studied in great detail by optical microscopy and specimens from different filters were retained and characterized for their contents 6 In past decades, pollen grains were classified to the genus and species levels using microscopy 141516 and the geographic areas where the corresponding plants originated and now inhabit proved to be compatible with the reported historic path followed by TS during the postulated year journey from the Near East 3thus supporting the authenticity of the relic.
In this study, we performed DNA analyses to define the biological sources of the dust particles pollen grains, cell debris and other minuscule organic specimens, such as plant-derived fibers and blood-like clots vacuum-collected in and in distinct TS filters, corresponding to the face, hands, glutei and feet of the body image 613 and the lateral edge, which was used for radiocarbon dating 8. This allowed the identification of DNA sources from a wide range of plant species and human mitogenomes belonging to numerous haplogroups.
The overall findings were then evaluated to determine whether the geographic areas of origin and distribution of detected plant cpDNA species and human mtDNA haplogroups might provide novel clues concerning the origin of the Turin Shroud. More than PCR-derived amplicons were recovered from genic and intergenic target regions, 77 of which were successfully sequenced and attributed to a genus or species source 19 different plant taxa.
Approximately half of the DNA sequences derived from the TS lateral edge samples filter I and allowed us to identify 16 plant species. In filters E-H, corresponding to various parts of the TS male body image, we ased DNA sequences to one gluteitwo feetor three plant species face and hands. Table 1 summarizes the plant species found on TS by Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki databases of orthologous sequences from taxa of established identity.
The land plant species include herbaceous weeds and crops, woody trees and shrubs; some are native to Mediterranean countries and are widespread in Central Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, whereas others have a center of origin in Eastern Asia and the Americas and hence they were not yet present into Europe during the Medieval period Supplementary Table S1.
Among the taxa identified, the most abundant belongs to the genus Piceawhich includes a few closely related species native to Europe P. Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki, other species are present, including those native to the Mediterranean basin, such as clovers Trifolium spp. Pyrus amygdaliformis Vill. Among the plant species of the New World, black locust Robinia pseudoacacia L. In addition, we identified crop species largely grown by farmers and common in many agriculture systems of the Old World, including chicory Cichorium intybus L. We also uncovered tree species commonly present in forests and woodlands, such as hornbeams Carpinus spp.
Schematic overview of the Vavilov centers of origin of plant taxa identified in TS samples. The of amplicons is reported for each species and across filters E, F, G, H and I see also Table 1 for details on the distribution of species among TS filters.
Based on the overall data, we may assume that TS was likely displayed in, or in very close contact with, different types of natural and anthropological environments. The large variety of taxonomic entities is compatible with highly diverse geographic ranges, varying from farms of cultivated plains to riparian woodlands and mountain forests.
Some species have a center of origin and have diversified in areas around the Mediterranean basin, including North Africa and the Middle East and most of these species were widely distributed throughout Europe before the age of Christ. However, other species identified on TS were not introduced to Europe before the XVI century, after the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus for instance, Robinia pseudoacacia and also nightshades of the family Solanaceaewhile the two species of Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki genera Prunus and Pyrusrare fruit trees originating from South-East Asia and the Middle East, were likely introduced to Mediterranean territories from the XIII century and thereafter, following the travels of Marco Polo Supplementary Table S1.
This result not only indicates that human DNA was indeed unequivocally present in the dust from TS but also that the sources of human DNA could be ascribed to numerous individuals Table 2.
Moreover, not only were the observed mtDNA haplotypes numerous, but they could also be affiliated to many distinct haplogroups. The and proportion of read clusters derived from the different TS samples for each of the identified haplogroups are shown in Fig. Some haplogroups are widespread, while others are geographically and ethnically more localized see Supplementary Table S2 for detailed information.
Haplogroup H33 is rare and mainly found thus far among the Druze, a minority population of Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. Haplogroup L3c is extremely rare and only found in East Africa, while haplogroups M39, M56, R7 and R8 are typical of the Indian subcontinent, with the latter essentially present only in Eastern India. Schematic overview of the current geographical distribution of human mtDNA haplogroups and sub-haplogroups identified in TS samples. One of these sequences, although very short being 58 bp long, partially matched and produced the best alignment with the MT-CYB gene accession no.
Another of these sequences, corresponding to bp of the CO1 gene, was ascribable to a marine worm Cerebratulus longiceps Coerather common in the Northern Pacific Ocean, next to Canada accession no. DNA extracted from dust particles that were vacuumed from the Turin Shroud shows sequence profiles that identify numerous Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki species and correspond to several distinct human mtDNA haplogroups.
These not only confirm that plant fibers and pollen grains are present on TS, as ly reported by optical microscopy, but also reveal that multiple human individuals touched or otherwise left traces of their DNA on the relic linen. The detection of such a variety of DNA sources is extremely valuable in assessing whether there are possible parallelisms between the areas of origin and distribution of Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki land plant species and human mtDNA haplogroups and the temporal and spatial paths associated with the two alternative scenarios that have been proposed to explain the TS origin.
The radiocarbon measurements would place the origin of the TS linen in the time frame — AD. The alternative scenario implies instead a much longer journey that started in Jerusalem in the year 30 or 33 AD. In this case, the time frame for the interaction with the DNA biological sources is much longer years and the geographic areas where the TS was located include the Near East, Anatolia, Eastern and Western Europe, with a potentially much wider range of plant and human interactions.
With regard to the land plant species identified, some are native to Mediterranean countries and widespread throughout Europe, North Africa and the Middle East and are thus compatible with both a rather recent Medieval origin in Europe and a more ancient Near Eastern origin. However, others have a center of origin in Eastern Asia and the Americas and were introduced to Europe only after the Medieval period.
Clearly, the latter species cannot help in discriminating between alternative scenarios. The quantitatively most abundant species found on TS dust is spruce: the vast majority of DNA sequences ased to the genus Picea are likely attributable to the species Picea abies L. Of note, our trnL-intron sequences shared the haplotype with most Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki those of P.
Cheng, Pyrus spinosa Forssk and Prunus kansuensis Rehder is not negligible, with the former species that currently has a distribution area centered in Europe and the Mediterranean basin and the latter that are more widespread in temperate Asia, Southern Europe and Northern Africa. Overall, the various plant species and numerous taxonomic families identified on TS Supplementary Table S1 suggest that contamination may have occurred during the past centuries and are compatible with the scenario that the linen cloth was exposed to different locations across the Mediterranean area.
With regard to the sources of human DNA, the detected haplotypes do not cluster randomly on the entire human mtDNA tree, but only on a specific subset of its branches, corresponding to numerous haplogroups from Western Eurasia and surrounding areas Supplementary Table S2. This finding not only indicates that many individuals have left traces of their DNA on the TS, but also that they most likely belonged to different ethnic groups and were from far away geographic regions, including Europe, North and East Africa, the Middle East and India.
Thus, the sources of these sequences fit well the geographic path of the postulated long journey from the Near East, even if they are also fully compatible with the scenario that among the perhaps thousands of worshippers who came into contact with the relic in France and Italy throughout the centuries, there were many coming from the far away geographic areas where these mtDNA haplogroups are common.
Moreover, it should be taken into that filters E, F, G and H correspond to the internal parts of the linen cloth that enveloped the body of the TS man; in contrast, filter I derives from the lateral edge of the cloth. Because the cloth was folded, the lateral edges were not only in contact with the external environment much more than the internal and more protected body image but are also the TS regions that were handled the most. Thus, filters E, F, G and H might provide more reliable clues than filter I with regard to the TS earliest contacts and contamination and, therefore, its hypothesized historical path.
If these are excluded, four partially overlapping geographic regions are generally outlined by the remaining haplogroups: i the Middle East with haplogroups H13, H33 and R0a; ii Southeast Europe and Turkey with haplogroups H1a, H2a Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki H13; iii Western Europe, including France and Italy, with haplogroups H1j and H3; and iv Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki with haplogroups M56 and R8.
In conclusion, our on human mtDNA traces detected on the TS are compatible with both alternative scenarios that i the cloth had a Medieval origin in Western Europe where people from different geographic regions and ethnic affiliations came in contact with it, possibly moved by the worship for the Christian relic; ii the linen cloth had a Middle Eastern origin and was moved itself across the Mediterranean area, consequently coming across a wide range of local folks and devotes in a longer time span.
Even in the latter case i. One obvious possibility is that during the course of centuries, individuals of Indian ancestry came into contact with TS. However, one alternative and intriguing possibility is that the linen cloth was weaved in India, as supported perhaps by the original name of TS - Sindon - which appears to derive from Sindia or Sindiena fabric coming from India.
The samples used in this study for DNA investigations are sub-sets of the dust particles vacuumed from the back of the Turin Shroud TSwhich were kindly provided in by Giulio Fanti Dept. In particular, four samples were originally collected on filters in from four distinct areas of the back of TS, corresponding to the hands filter Eface filter Ffeet filter G and glutei filter H of the TS male image An additional sample was collected inderiving specifically from the corner area filter I of TS, which was used for radiocarbon dating 812 for details, see Supplementary Figure S2panels A—C.
The dust samples collected on these filters were immobilized on adhesive tapes as ly described 613 and consisted of a variety of particles.
In fact, optical microscope observations of filters E-I had ly revealed the presence of pollen grains, cell debris and other minuscule organic specimens, such as plant-derived fibers and blood-like clots 67 A total of 2 to 12 square portioned specimens of the pieces of adhesive tape were used for independent genomic DNA extractions; the DNA samples from the individual specimens were kept separate for PCR amplifications. In particular, the DNA amplicons from each of the 2, 4 or 6 specimens associated with internal filters E, F, G and H were pooled together into single samples, whereas the DNA amplicons from external filter I were divided into two samples of 6 specimens each named I and I R and taken as independent biological replications; Supplementary Figure S2.
This pooling strategy was imposed by the different sizes of the pieces of adhesive tape Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki be analyzed for each of the five TS filters and by the fact that dust particles were demonstrated to be much more abundant on the tape representing the external filter than on those for the internal filters 6 All manipulation steps were performed aseptically under laminar flow hood conditions using autoclaved disposables and buffers that were filter-sterilized.
In particular, we used sterile materials Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki all standard procedures with internal negative controls to avoid, or eventually discover, contaminations from the operators and the environment. The entire mitochondrial genomes of the three operators who came in contact with the Shroud samples were completely sequenced and all mtDNA sequences that we obtained from the TS samples and could be theoretically attributed to operator contamination Supplementary Table S3 were excluded from our final. As for possible environmental contaminations, none of the large varieties of plant sources detected in the Shroud Supplementary Table S1 through the analysis of nuclear ITS, chloroplast genes or cpDNA Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki are grown or studied in our facilities.
Specimens from the pieces of adhesive tape with the TS dust particles were used individually for genomic DNA extraction to avoid any loss of TS material and to perform replicate experiments for each TS filter. All manipulation steps were performed under laminar flow hood conditions using DNA- and DNase-free, disposable autoclaved materials and filter-sterilized buffers. Immediately after collection, sub-samples were transferred to a 1. To identify human genetic lineages and plant taxonomic entities, specific plant DNA and human mitochondrial DNA regions were deated for PCR amplification and sequencing.
Clones were plated on LB plates 1. The human mtDNA sequences, as clusters deriving from the assembly of re generated by sequencing, were deposited in GenBank with accession s KPKP From an experimental point of view, it should be noted that some species were identified in biological replicates by using different specimens of the same filter as well as different filters but were also assessed by technical replicates according to amplicons from different genetic targets.
All these cases are pivotal experimental validations and demonstrate the robust asments of plant species or genus. Amplifications of target mtDNA sequences prior to pyrosequencing were performed as described in the paragraph using specific primer sets Supplementary Table S4. However, the size of ancient DNA fragments, in addition to age, is influenced by many additional factors such as environmental conditions e.
In brief, DNA degradation becomes more effective only over long intervals, but is de facto unpredictable over shorter time spans such as those postulated for the DNA traces on the TS and when considering the numerous copies of extra-nuclear DNA molecules 232425 Quantification of the pooled amplicons was performed with a Nanodrop fluorometer ND Thermo Scientific.
The of sequenced and aligned re referring to the single libraries are reported in Supplementary Table S7. Mapping of the sequence re to the H. Mapping of the sequence re originating from each library was used to estimate the average coverage for each target region.
Background noise in the sequences was filtered with a program developed ad hoc that analyzes the composition in words k-mer of the produced sequences and masks the words having a frequency lower than the value set as the cutoff.
For this step, the length of the k-mers was set to 7 and the minimum frequency parameter was set to 5. The average coverage of the mtDNA target regions for each single pool and target region is summarized in Supplementary Table S7.
In this step, each pool of sequences was independently aligned against the reference sequence The alignment files were saved as standard SAM files. Variant calling was performed on alignments of sequences representative of each cluster with the software PASS For each cluster, the haplotype was defined as the collection of substitutions either transversions or transitions that emerged in the variant calling process. Insertions and deletions were not taken into. A pre-filtering step for estimation of the mtDNA haplogroups represented in our cluster sequences was performed with the software HaploGrep 30which allows the automatic asment of haplogroups according to Phylotree Preliminary asments of haplogroups to sequence Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki displaying the highest sequence coverage were manually verified.
The frequency of each haplogroup was estimated by the of sequences contained in each cluster ased to that specific haplogroup. The distribution of haplogroups in the different samples was estimated as above, but by counting the sequences according to the library information.
How to cite this article : Barcaccia, G. Jumper, E. Adler, A. Special Issue, Ed. Antonacci, M. The Resurrection of the Shroud M. Poulle, E. Revue critique. Article Google Scholar. Meacham, W.Shroud of turin carbon dating wiki
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