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Sedative-hypnotics are a class of drugs that cause a dose-dependent depression of the CNS function, inducing sedation, sleep, and unconsciousness with increasing dose. Agents in this class of drugs include benzodiazepines and Z-drugsbarbituratesand melatonin agonists.
Most of the sedative-hypnotic drugs affect GABAergic transmission, increasing the inhibition of neuronal excitability, except for melatonin agonistswhich act on hypothalamic melatonin receptors. Sedative-hypnotic drugs are used as anxiolyticssedatives, muscle relaxantsanestheticsand anticonvulsants. Common side effects result from excessive CNS depression and include confusion, drowsiness, somnolenceand respiratory depression. Long-term use of sedative-hypnotics is associated with a risk of dependence. L orazepam, O xazepam, and T emazepam are preferred in those who drink a LOT because they are not metabolized by the liver and therefore safe in alcoholic liver disease.
List of sedatives hypnotics and anxiolytics increases the frequenzo of Cl-channel opening. Most cases of benzodiazepine overdose occur in patients who are on chronic benzodiazepine therapy.
Flumazenil can precipitate withdrawal symptoms and seizures in patients with benzodiazepine dependence. Benzodiazepine overdose is very rarely life-threatening unless associated with the co-ingestion of alcohol, opioidsbarbituratesfirst-generation antihistamines e. Benzodiazepine dependence can develop even after just a few weeks of use. Therefore, benzodiazepines should only be prescribed when strongly indicated. Z-drugs give you the Zzzz's make you sleepy. Barbiturates are no longer used for sedation or long-term treatment of insomnia due to their low safety margin.
They have been replaced by more effective drugs with fewer side effects e. Ra mel teon, tasi mel teon, and ago mel atine are mel atonin receptor agonists. Suv orex - ant is an orex in ant agonist. Trusted medical expertise in seconds.
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Sedative-hypnotic drugs Last updated: May 31, Summary Sedative-hypnotics are a class of drugs that cause a dose-dependent depression of the CNS function, inducing sedation, sleep, and unconsciousness with increasing dose. Benzodiazepines Agents and indications Overview of benzodiazepines and their indications Duration of action Pharmacological agent Indications Potential for dependence Short Midazolam Triazolam Alprazolam Oxazepam Procedural sedation Anesthesia induction Sleep-onset insomnia Very high Intermediate Temazepam Lormetazepam Lorazepam Anxiety disorders Sleep-onset as well as sleep-maintenance insomnia Alcohol withdrawal syndrome lorazepamesp.
References Mancuso CE et al. Treatment of benzodiazepine dependence. N Engl J Med. J Clin Med. Suvorexant for the treatment of insomnia. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology. Updated: January 1, Accessed: October 4, Midazolam Triazolam Alprazolam Oxazepam. Procedural sedation Anesthesia induction Sleep-onset insomnia. Very high. Temazepam Lormetazepam Lorazepam. Anxiety disorders List of sedatives hypnotics and anxiolytics as well as sleep-maintenance insomnia Alcohol withdrawal syndrome lorazepamesp. Diazepam Clonazepam Chlordiazepoxide Tetrazepam.
Anxiety and panic attacks Epilep sy including status epilepticus Alcohol withdrawal syndrome or detoxification Night terrorssleep walking Eclampsia second line Spasticity General anesthesia muscle relaxation and amnesia Acute episodes of paranoia Stress disorders. Thiopental Methohexital. Pentobarbital Secobarbital.
Preanesthetic sedation Short-term treatment for insomnia or anxiety Tension-type headache. Generalized-onset and focal-onset seizures Essential tremor.List of sedatives hypnotics and anxiolytics
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Anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics